The symptoms treatment and history of the major flu pandemics

Influenza (Flu)

The influenza virus can spread to other people in droplets contaminated with the virus. The infection spread from India to Afghanistan inand then there were sporadic outbreaks over the next six years before it reappeared in India and the Middle East in Although the lethal toxicity of ricin is about 1,fold less than botulinum toxin, the worldwide ready availability of castor beans and the ease with which the toxin can be produced give it significant potential as a biological weapon.

Prescription Angiotension Blockers and their use in treating Bird Flu. Signs and Symptoms After exposure, signs and symptoms begin in two to 12 hours.

Strains of influenza B and strains of influenza A subtypes are further distinguished by variations in genetic sequence. The only other animals known to be susceptible to influenza B infection are the seal [49] and the ferret.

Symptom onset is slower after inhalation exposure.

Bacterial and Viral Infections

This study indicated no increase in clinically important medically attended events during the 2 weeks after inactivated influenza vaccination compared with control periods 3—4 weeks before and after vaccination FluMist Quadrivalent is indicated for healthy, nonpregnant persons aged 2 through 49 years.

Radiographically confirmed pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome ARDSor other severe respiratory illness for which an alternate diagnosis cannot be established One or more of the following: RIV3, an egg-free vaccine, is now an option for vaccination of persons aged 18 through 49 years with egg allergy of any severity.

The human and animal populations of other Asian countries have similarly increased exponentially, which has increased the chances for close contact between birds, pigs and humans in these countries, creating optimal conditions for the emergence of new viruses, such as the H5N1 subtype.

This book is a must read for those wanting to be prepared to treat a patient with avian influenza: Presentations are requested from invited experts, and published and unpublished data are discussed.

Soldiers dealing with the unsanitary conditions of 17th-century warfare were perfect hosts for lice — parasites that spread typhus through the ranks of troops.

Because these mycotoxins can cause massive organ damage, and because they are fairly easy to produce and can be dispersed by various methods dusts, droplets, aerosols, smoke, rockets, artillery mines, portable spraysmycotoxins have an excellent potential for weaponization.

But in August, when the second wave began in France, Sierra Leone and the United States, [73] the virus had mutated to a much deadlier form. A retrospective cohort study of approximatelypregnant women conducted in Nova Scotia during — compared medical record data for pregnant women to data from the same women during the year before pregnancy.

Typhoid fever causes sickness and red spots to form on the chest and abdomen. Flu symptoms start to develop from one to four days after infection with the virus. This occurs because the vaccine needs to be produced months before the flu season begins, so the vaccine is designed by projecting and choosing the most likely viral strains to include in the vaccine.

However, most viruses isolated among infected vaccinees did not match the vaccine strains Some concern exists that monkeypox may be weaponized, however, human monkeypox is not as potent as smallpox.

For some people, that may include medications to control fever and seizures or help breathing. Image Source Disease has probably killed more human beings than anything else in history, and illnesses such as the plague, malaria and cholera are still dangerous today.

Diphtheria causes swelling of the mucous membranes, including in your throat, that can obstruct breathing and swallowing. Chest pain occurs in a few people. The intradermal shots reportedly have similar side effects as the IM shot but are less intense and may not last as long as the IM shot.

Thus, they possess characteristics that may make them attractive for use by terrorists. The potential of the organism as a biological warfare agent is related directly to its ability to infect people easily. Other drugs are being studied as well. Infection through contaminated objects such as clothing is infrequent.

Mosquitoes are key to how this disease spreads, especially in countries like Central and South America and Africa. This virus is antigenically distinct from human influenza A H1N1 viruses in circulation from through spring There are many types of influenza vaccines, and the naming conventions have evolved over time Box.

People with severe SEB may need help breathing with a ventilator. What medications treat the flu? If eaten, ricin causes symptoms in the GI tract. Most influenza viruses that infect humans seem to originate in parts of Asia, where close contact between livestock and people creates a hospitable environment for mutation and transmission of viruses.An epidemic is when an infectious disease spreads within a community or area.

Learn about the biggest outbreaks in United States history and how we’ve overcome them. Bacterial and viral infections have many things in common. Both types of infections are caused by microbes -- bacteria and viruses, respectively --.

Biological Warfare

Prevention and Control of Seasonal Influenza with Vaccines: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices — United States, – Influenza, commonly known as "the flu", is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.

Symptoms can be mild to severe. The most common symptoms include: a high fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle pains, headache, coughing, and feeling tired. These symptoms typically begin two days after exposure to the virus and most last. Learn more from WebMD about the flu, including causes, symptoms, types, risk factors, treatment, and prevention.

The influenza pandemic (January – December ; colloquially known as: Spanish flu) was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus. It infected million people around the world, including people on remote Pacific islands and in the Arctic, and resulted in the deaths of 50 to.

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The symptoms treatment and history of the major flu pandemics
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